At it's root, litigation involves the assertion of - or alternatively, the defence of - certain rights or obligations as between two parties.
It covers a wide spectrum of situations involving individuals, companies and often both, where customers are involved.
It can be difficult to know whether any particular claim would be valid and whether it is likely to be successful - two different things entirely.
In general, a claim may arise where loss, damage or injury has been suffered as a result of an action – or failure to act – by another party (individual, company, local authority etc.) who has a responsibility - either in contract or in law - towards the party who has suffered the loss, damage or injury.